[N] 2008 Adaptive Features of Protoceratopoids
Tereschenko, V.S. (2008) Adaptive Features of Protoceratopoids (Ornithischia: Neoceratopsia) Paleontological Journal, 2008, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 273–286. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2008. Original Russian Text © V.S. Tereschenko, 2008, published in Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 2008, No. 3, pp. 50–64.
Abstract: The analysis of some morphological characteristics of protoceratopoid skeletons, the extent of mobility of the vertebral column, and the probable adaptive significance of these features suggest that Bagaceratops had a mostly aquatic mode of life, Protoceratops was semiaquatic, Udanoceratops was facultatively aquatic, and Leptoceratops was predominantly terrestrial.
Protoceratopoids were quadrupeds, with the prevalence of hind limbs, probably using slow or rapid trotlike gait. An asymmetrical locomotion was most likely impossible. On dry land, Bagaceratops and Protoceratops moved slowly. Udanoceratops and Leptoceratops approximately equally used rapid and slow locomotor modes, although the second could run for a longer time than the first.