[N] 2007 T.rex protein
Schweitzer, M.H., Suo, Z. Avci, R. Asara, J.M, Allen, M.A., Arce, F.T. and Horner, J.R. (2007) Analyses of Soft Tissue from Tyrannosaurus rex Suggest the Presence of Protein. Science Vol. 316. no. 5822, pp. 277 - 280
Abstract: We performed multiple analyses of Tyrannosaurus rex (specimen MOR 1125) fibrous cortical and medullary tissues remaining after demineralization. The results indicate that collagen I, the main organic component of bone, has been preserved in low concentrations in these tissues. The findings were independently confirmed by mass spectrometry. We propose a possible chemical pathway that may contribute to this preservation. The presence of endogenous protein in dinosaur bone may validate hypotheses about evolutionary relationships, rates, and patterns of molecular change and degradation, as well as the chemical stability of molecules over time.
\\\\\\\"B. rex\\\\\\\" the Eastern Montana oldest T. rex on record that became famous for yielding soft tissue, blood vessels and tissue typical of a female bird has now produced 68-million-year-old protein. The protein came in the form of collagen from the back thigh bone. The find is significant because it strengthens the belief that dinosaurs and birds are related. Jack Horner curator of paleontology at MSU\\\\\\\'s Museum of the Rockies said: \\\\\\\"The fact that we are getting protein is very, very exciting.\\\\\\\"
\\\\\\\"B. rex\\\\\\\" was discovered in 2000 between Jordan and the Fort Peck Reservoir by Bob Harmon chief preparator of paleontology at the Museum of the Rockies. Schweitzer and her team of researchers looked inside the \\\\\\\"B. rex\\\\\\\"and ran a variety of tests that revealed preserved soft tissues and blood vessels in the bone. They also found medullary tissue which is only found in female birds during the egg-laying cycle and proved that B. rex was actually a female.
Asara, J.M., Schweitzer, M.H., Freimark, L.M., Phillips, M. and Cantley, L.C. (2007) Protein Sequences from Mastodon and Tyrannosaurus Rex Revealed by Mass Spectrometry. Science Vol. 316. no. 5822, pp. 280 - 285
Abstract: Fossilized bones from extinct taxa harbor the potential for obtaining protein or DNA sequences that could reveal evolutionary links to extant species. We used mass spectrometry to obtain protein sequences from bones of a 160,000- to 600,000-year-old extinct mastodon (Mammut americanum) and a 68-million-year-old dinosaur (Tyrannosaurus rex). The presence of T. rex sequences indicates that their peptide bonds were remarkably stable. Mass spectrometry can thus be used to determine unique sequences from ancient organisms from peptide fragmentation patterns, a valuable tool to study the evolution and adaptation of ancient taxa from which genomic sequences are unlikely to be obtained.