[D] Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis
Brusatte and Sereno 2007
Cretaceous Late Cenomanian
Saurischia Theropoda Tetanurae Carnosauria Carcharodontosauridae
Echkar Formation, west of the oasis In Abangharit in an area known as Iguidi, Niger
Carcharodontosaurus (Stromer, 1931) > Carcharodontosaurus saharicus (Deperet& Savornin, 1927) = Megalosaurus saharicus (Deperet& Savornin, 1927) Megalosaurus africanus (Huene, 1956) Carcharodontosaurus > Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis ( Brusatte and Sereno 2007)
MNN IGU2, left maxilla.
iguidi, Iguidi; ensis, from (Latin).
MNN IGU3, posterior skull roof and braincase including most of the frontal, parietal, supraoccipital, exoccipital-opisthotic, prootic, laterosphenoid, orbitosphenoid, basioccipital, basisphenoid-parasphenoid, and possibly sphenethmoid; MNN IGU4, right lacrimal, mid section; MNN IGU5, left dentary, anterior end; MNN IGU 6 through 10, teeth; MNN IGU11, mid cervical centrum.
Locality and Horizon
Collected in association with the abelisaurid Rugops primus (Sereno et al., 2004), spinosaurid teeth tentatively referred to Spinosaurus sp., unnamed rebbachisaurid and titanosaurian sauropods, and three unnamed crocodyliforms. Lapparent (1953) first discovered the vertebrate fossils of Iguidi, most of which are preserved as deflation lag on outcrop exposed between migrating dunes. The maxilla was found in situ at the eastern edge of Iguidi, where Lapparent first encountered fossil bone and teeth. The referred cranial material (lacrimal fragment, braincase, anterior dentary), teeth, and cervical centrum were discovered at a single locality (C29) located approximately 3 km west of the maxilla. This locality has an area of approximately 50 m2. The braincase and dentary were found in situ embedded in the red sandstone of the Echkar Formation. The lacrimal fragment, teeth, and cervical centrum, in contrast, were found in proximity but had eroded free of their original deposit. None of the material at this locality was preserved in articulation. The maturity of the braincase (obliterating fusion) contrasts with the immaturity of the cervical vertebra (centrum and neural arch disarticulated) and strongly suggests that multiple individuals are represented. Isolated teeth and vertebral fragments that may pertain to this species are present at more distant localities in Iguidi. The maxilla was chosen as the holotype because it is the most diagnostic bone preserved.
Carcharodontosaurid with maxilla characterized by a very reduced antorbital fossa limited to the proximity of the maxillary fenestra; an anteromedial process that is broadly arched toward the midline; and a prominent horizontal crest on the medial aspect of the main body; braincase excavated by a deep invaginated fossa on the anterior aspect of the laterosphenoid ala. C. iguidensis lacks the autapomorphies of C. saharicus, including the laterally protruding ventral margin of the maxillary external antorbital fossa; a well developed ventrally-facing fossa between the inner wall of the maxilla and the anteromedial process; a deepened and dorsoventrally protruding lacrimal-frontal suture; an invaginated anteromedial corner of the supratemporal fossa; a sigmoidal crest on the anterior wall of the supratemporal fossa, and marked enamel wrinkles along most of the mesial and distal margins of mesial (anterior) and mid maxillary crowns.